All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The most basic right is human rights. Rights and Freedom to which all humans are entitled; asserting that everyone is endowed with certain entitlements merely by definition of being ‘human’. Conceived in a universal and egalitarian manner, these entitlements exist as shared norms and actual human moralities, as justified moral norms or natural rights; supported by strong reasoning.
Human Rights also include legal rights either at national level or within international law. There is, however no consensus as to the precise nature of what in particular should be or shouldn’t be considered as ‘Human Rights’, in any of the preceding sense. This abstract concept of human rights has been a subject of intense philosophical debate and critique.

The modern concepts associated with ‘Human Rights’ came in the aftermath of the Second World War, a part response to the Holocaust. It culminated in the adoption of the ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ by the UN General Assembly in 1948. Relatively modern, the intellectual foundations of this concept can be traced through the history of philosophy, the concept of natural laws, liberties dating back to Classical Greece leading towards the development of Roman law.
A true forerunner of human rights discourse was the enlightenment concept of natural rights developed by figures such as John Locke, Immanuel Kant the through the political realm in United States Bill of Rights, Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. In India, we can trace it back to Arthshastra and now in the Constitution of India that provides for Fundamental rights.

Human Rights are constitutionally protected even in countries as such complex demographic diversity riddled with discriminations-like India. Although human rights problems do exist in India, the country is generally not regarded as a human rights concern, unlike other eastern countries. Based on these considerations, the report gave India a political rights rating of 2, and a civil liberties rating of 3, earning it the highest possible rating of ‘FREE’
But this is a question for all of you Indians or observers and well wishers of India. It’s been 60+ years post independence. Do you think India has upheld human rights? Have these rights been respected across all caste, creed and communities by our country’s leaders?

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